The basic principle of radiographic inspection of welds is the same as that for medical radiography. Other ndt methods are acoustic emission ae, digital sheargraphy and irtermography irt. Radiographic testing rt is a nondestructive testing ndt method which uses either x rays or gamma rays to examine the internal structure of manufactured components identifying any flaws or defects. For instance, series c0001 contains 72 xray images of an aluminum casting wheel. Checking the software and hardware itself after start the machine 2. Rt uses xrays to create a 3d image of the weld, whereas ut uses sound waves to find discontinuities in the weld. Ultrasonic testing ut has been proposed as a potential replacement method. Shielded metal arc welding and automated and semiautomated gas metal arc processes were used to fabricate the plates. Such tests include radiographic, ultrasonic, electromagnetic eddycurrent, x ray, acoustic, and tomographic techniques.
X ray reports location, addresses on x ray report, or state, test joint for requalification welders name date of x ray report what code, only one, api 1104, 20th edition, must have both listed what process used, shielded metal arc welding smaw or welding procedure, or electrode. The welds were fabricated steel in the form of doublevgroove joints, nominally 1. The supplier fabricator decided that because of the plate thickness an alternative to x ray was to be suggested to bp. I have only been welding pipe for about a year and almos every joint ive welded has been x rayd with only a hand full of drops out of 100s maybe s of welds. Twi has been at the forefront of the research, development and application of many advanced and conventional nondestructive testing ndt technologies for more than 40 years. Nondestructive testing analysis techniques are used for qa, evaluations, research, in cases where the product is expensive or unique, failure analysis, and so on. For fabricationconstruction, asme code section iii division 1, articles nbncnd defines. Norsok standard 1 of contents 1 foreword 2 2 scope 2 3 normative references 2 4 definitions and abreviations 3 4. Unequal leg fillet weld for unequal leg fillet welds, the size of the weld is the leg length of the largest right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. Conditioning, or grinding, also is used to smooth out these areas for surface inspection. The term x ray quality, widely used to indicate high quality in welds, arises from this inspection method. In the singlewall radiographic testing technique, the radiation passes through only one wall of the weld material, which is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph. Nondestructive testing standards astm international.
Industrial radiography is a method of nondestructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen. Photo about x ray inspection of welded joints of pipeline elements on the basis of production of blanks. Xray tubes, gamma rays emitted by radioactive isotopes or electron. Industrial radiography is a nondestructive testing ndt method which allows components to be.
Rotation each 5 degrees annotations for defects, calibration. X ray method stock photo image of industrial, flaw. Generally ultrasonic testing or radiographic testing applies to butt welds and penetrant testing or magnetic particle inspection applies to fillet welds. Xray back scatter techniques have been applied in safety and. This test method provides a uniform procedure for radiographic examination of weldments using industrial radiographic film.
An ndt method that utilizes x rays or gamma radiation to detect discontinuities in. Industrial radiography and x ray testing is one of the most common nondestructive testing methods within the industrial sector. The database of x ray images for nondestructive testing 5 fig. Series images kpixels description additional c0001 72 439. The past approach was a highly manual and time consuming analogue approach using xray film. Nondestructive weld testing standards cover multiple possible methods of testing welds or metallic materials. The key is selecting the appropriate ndt method to suit your requirements, and to ensure that the testing instruments used are properly maintained and calibrated. Image of industrial, flaw, detail 166076306 nondestructive testing of welds. First he will weld the 6 sch 80 coupon at the south coast welding academy then take it to the ocean corporation to see if it passes x rays. Testing of metal structure during xraying of welded joints.
All of these steps make use of the radiographers visual acuity. Radiography testing rt is one of the most widely used non destructive test ndt method. X ray is used to determine internal soundness of the welds. Requirements expressed in this method are intended to control the quality of the radiographic images and are not intended for controlling acceptability or quality of welds. Basics of radiography testing and image processing2. Xray testing is a nondestructive testing ndt defined. The work involves the phased array testing of stainless steel butt welds 60mm thick, a total weld length of 75 meters all of the previous welds on the project had been radiographed but these where only up to 40mm thick. In addition to producing high quality radiographs, the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation. Xray tomographic inservicetesting of circumferential.
Visible light is in the same family as x rays and gamma rays. It is an approach to testing that involves evaluating the weld without causing damage. X ray film top view of developed film 6 general principles of radiography. Guidebook for the fabrication of ndt test specimens.
Weld inspection and fine casting testing require at least 50 m resolution see iso 176362. Surface cleaning is necessary to prepare the welds for either mt or pt. The driving force behind these developments has been industry need for techniques to accurately locate, characterise and size flaws in every type of component and. It works in a very similar way to x rays which we have on the human body to look at broken bones. An advantage of radiography over manual ut is the production of a permanent. X rays and gamma rays have enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms and damage the molecular structure of cells. Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps. Inspect x control and analysis software enhances the speed and functionality of the nikon x ray and industrial ct systems. These methods are referred to as nondestructive tests because they permit evaluation of. Xray welding is an experimental welding process that uses a high powered x ray source to provide thermal energy required to weld materials the phrase xray welding also has an older, unrelated usage in quality control. An ndt method that utilizes xrays or gamma radiation to.
Radiographic testing procedure inspection for industry. Radiographic testing rt this method of weld testing makes use of xrays, produced by an xray tube, or gamma rays, produced by a radioactive isotope. Asme section iii division 1 subsection nc class 2 components. X ray inspection is an important tool in nondestructive testing ndt, inspection ndi and examination nde. Nondestructive testing ndt methods shall be selected in accordance with en 12062 by personnel qualified according to level 3 as defined in en 473. Nondestructive weld testing standards ansi webstore. However, we only work with companies that we use ourselves and can honestly and ethically recommend to our audience. X ray provides the ability to inspect inside your product, to measure and analyse concealed features in without destroying the integrity of the item under investigation. If you have been welding pipe for six years you should have nothing to worry about. Industrial radiography can be performed utilizing either x rays or gamma rays. Radiography relies on transmission and absorptionattenuation of small wavelength electromagnetic energy x rays and gamma rays. When, where, why to use nondestructive testing methods.
While rt and ut are both volumetric nondestructive evaluation nde methods, the physics of these processes are substantially different. Quality assurance for weld inspection with digital x ray systems and portable x ray systems assuring weld quality is critical in many applications and industries such as aerospace, power plants, ship building and boiler connections. Ppt radiographic testing powerpoint presentation free. Yxlon offers a wide range of nondestructive testing solutions with portable x ray systems, stationary x ray. In practical terms, this means that a welder who passes a groove weld test using a 6 nps pipe as the test coupon may make socket welds using. Iridium192 x ray selenium75 inspection of welding defects by radiography examination rt radiographers weld interpretation reference agfa ndt radiography testing ultrasonic testing penetran. Although our specifications dont recognize the need to x ray fillet welds, our customer does and therefore we must comply. Digital radiographic testing of the weld seam of welded steel tubes for the detection of imperfections. X ray film top view of developed film the film darkness density will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. Therefore, testing methods have been developed to provide the information required of the test object without rendering it unfit for service. The experts consulted the isofdis 97121999 requirements for training and certification of personnel and the suitability of various types of ndt test specimens that are needed to meet such requirements. Guidebook for the fabrication of nondestructive testing.
The most common method in automotive industries for inspection of spot welds is ultrasonic testing, but experiences from the. From having the ability to inspect, quantify and qualify failures and defects to being able to access internal and external geometry, industrial radiography has become an indispensable tool for the industry. In this context, an x ray welder is a tradesman who consistently welds at such a high proficiency that he rarely introduces defects into the weld pool, and is able to. Needless to say, this has been a battle since day one. It saves time and money including the use of remote visual inspection rvi, x rays, ultrasonic testing and liquid penetration testing. This test is a radiographic physical weld testing and inspection method similar to the x ray method described in the paragraph on acid etch testing, except that the gamma rays emanate from a capsule of radium sulfate instead of an x ray tube. Manual ultrasonic testing mut this technique is performed by an. When it is not practical to use a singlewall technique, one of the following doublewall techniques shall be used. Ut acceptance criteria for fabricationconstruction weld inspection must be.
Is1 iian book on manual metal arc welding for welders. Cutting sections to confirm the xray ndt test results with dye penetrant to make. The xray images of group welds are included in gdxray thanks to the collaboration of uwe zscherpel at institute for materials research and testing bam, berlin. Testing of welds is an integral and the most important constituent of the ship repair quality assurance qa.
A year ago we took on an areospace contract that had a requirement of all welding to be class a, 100% radiographic inspection. Astms nondestructive testing standards provide guides for the appropriate methods and techniques used to detect and evaluate flaws in materials and objects without destroying the specimen at hand. Image intensifier techniques, inmotion radio graphy for inspection of welds. The energy of the radiation affects its penetrating power.
Xxq3005 weld x ray testing equipment glass xray tube xxq series are suitable for the material directional of thin iron plate, aluminum, rubber and so on, may get very good picture quality and clarity. Nondestructive testing xray inspection for ndt and nde. Compared to manual xray testing, automated systems offer advantages of. A set of appropriate ndt test specimens, as well as the methodology and procedures for. Radiography x ray is one of the most important, versatile and widely accepted of all the nondestructive examination methods fig. Each nondestructive testing method has drawbacks and advantages. Replacement of radiography with ultrasonics for the. In most welds, quality is tested based on the function for which it is intended. Ultrasonics, on the other hand, relies on the interaction of acoustic wave. Every one thinks of x ray and automatically thinks its very hard, its not. A comparison of ultrasonics and radiography for weld.233 262 1645 282 1466 289 106 1137 210 359 1045 1005 747 520 852 1344 100 155 472 13 304 1042 1660 542 491 546 922 111 421 663 313 545 676 474 316 90 1165 1265 1150 845